Map of Iraq (courtesy of Wiki Commons)
After Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, Iraq entered two decades of conflict with its neighbours (Iran 1980-1988, Kuwait 1990-1991). In 2003, a coalition of states led by the US and the UK undertook a controversial military intervention without the approval of the Security Council (United Nations, 2003).
The destabilisation of the country that followed these various conflicts facilitated the emergence of the Islamic State of the Levant and Iraq (ISIL). ISIL found its roots in Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). It became a branch of the organisation in 2006, and became more active in 2010 under the leadership of Baghdadi to the point that in 2013, it was claiming dozens of attacks a month in Iraq (BBC, 2015). They proclaimed a caliphate in 2014 and the calif, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, called the Muslims of the world to swear allegiance to him (Weaver, 2014).
In June 2014, ISIL invaded Western Iraq and started to persecute minorities such as the Christians (ADF international, 2017) and the Yazidi (United Nations, 2016). As a direct reaction to the crisis, a coalition of 22 other countries led by the US, began bombing ISIL and the cities it controlled (Roberts, 2014). The coalition was joined by Russia in 2015.
At the beginning of 2017, it was estimated that ISIL had lost 60% of the territories they controlled back in 2014. Moreover, July 2017 saw the Iraqi forces and US aviation take back the city of Mosul, costing the lives of 2,500 civilians (Cockburn, 2017). At that point, ISIL had lost 90% of its territory. Finally in November 2017, the Iraqi army delivered its “ultimate fight” against ISIL, hoping to take back the last territories held by ISIL. In December, the Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared that Iraq was finally free (Haider al-Abadi, 2017).
Even though the conflict with ISIL is mainly over, it keeps putting “vulnerable ethnic and religious minorities, including Christians, Shabak, Yazidis and Turkmen” at risk (GCR2P, 2018).
The country is expected to hold its parliamentary election on 12 May 2018. 15 years after the death of Saddam Hussein, this is a crucial moment for democracy in Iraq as the elected members will then vote for their Prime Minister and President. Some politics have however expressed their concern over the fact that the 2.9 million of Iraqi displaced in the country will not be able to vote as they will not be able to go back to their home constituencies, threatening the legitimacy of the election (Global Security, 2018).
At the individual level
The amount of casualties remains unclear but under Resolution 2379, the Security Council has asked the Secretary-General to establish an independent investigative team to “collect, preserve, and store evidence of acts that may amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed by the terrorist group in Iraq” (UN, 2017). The UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria had already declared on 16 June 2016 that “ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis” (OHCHR, 2016).
Additionally, it is estimated that 2.6 million internally displaced people remain displaced while 279,512 are refugees in neighbouring countries, such as Jordan and Turkey (UNHCR, 2018).
At the state level
The crisis has left the state more unstable than ever, and its consolidation will constitute a major challenge in the upcoming years. ISIL destroyed millennials cities, including but not limited to, Hatra, Nineveh, and Mosul. It has been qualified by the Iraqi antiquities Minister as “erasing the history of humanity” (Shaheen, 2017).
At the regional level
279,512 Iraqi refugees found shelter in neighbouring countries, especially in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey. This put increasing pressure on these states and the region. Additionally, the presence of ISIL led to an increased amount of terrorist attacks in the region, such as the bombing of two mosques in Yemen (March 2015) that killed 137, the bombings in Beirut (November 2015) that killed 43, bombings in Baghdad (July 2016) that killed over 300, and the palm Sunday bombings in Egypt (April 2017) that killed 47.
At the global level
Iraq has proven to be a very challenging crisis for the international community because it entailed fighting ISIL while protecting civilians and historical sites. The rise of terrorism has indeed been a key concern of the international community. Many countries, such as France, the UK, Spain, Germany, Denmark, the US, Tunisia, and Libya have experienced deadly terrorist attacks that were later claimed by ISIL. In February 2017, it was estimated that ISIL had committed 143 attacks in 29 countries killing over 2,000 since 2014 (Lister, Sanchez, Bixler, O’Key, Hogenmiller, and Tawfeeq, 2017). Consequently, the main priority of the coalition of states intervening was to fight ISIL.
This meant that the protection of civilians did not always received the attention it deserved. The fate of the Yazidi is a good example. Despite the use of the term genocide in 2016, they kept being killed, enslaved, tortured, and forcibly displaced.
The General Assembly also expressed concerns at the destruction of historical sites in Iraq and unanimously adopted a resolution calling for urgent action in 2015 (United Nations, 2015). After the destruction of an iconic mosque and a minaret in Mosul in 2017, Irina Bokova, the Head of UNESCO condemned the act and argued that “the protection of heritage cannot be delinked from the protection of human lives” (United Nations, 2017).
What has the international community done about it?
The United Nations
The United Nations has been closely involved in addressing the recent crisis in Iraq. With the conflict coming to an end, its main aims are to help establish a legitimate government, respond to the humanitarian needs of the population and support the investigation of atrocities committed during the crisis, such as the genocide against the Yazidis.
In January 2018, Miroslav Jenča’s (the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs) visited Iraq to discuss with Iraqi government officials how the UN may best help Iraq, particularly with the country’s elections scheduled for May 2018 (UN Department of Political Affairs, 2018). Rebuilding infrastructures is seen as a key priority since it will aid reducing the number of internally displaced people.
The UN has done much to promote the return of IDPs and refugees and January 2018 saw the number of people returning home outnumber those still displaced for the first time since 2013 (UN News, 2018). However, the UN continues to view the issue of displaced people a significant concern and is trying to prevent premature returns (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). The UN is also concerned about the fate of the child soldiers who were recruited by armed groups such as ISIL and the ISF and is urging the Iraqi government to view these children as victims, promoting a focus on their rehabilitation and reintegration into society (UN Security Council, 2016).
Another key area the UN has addressed is how to bring accountability to those involved who committed mass atrocities during the conflict. The United Nations Security Council’s decision to authorise the creation of an independent team to investigate crimes committed by ISIL in Iraq was well received, but the failure to include government-affiliated groups such as the Iraqi Special Forces (ISF) in the investigation has been criticised since there is reasonable evidence that suggests that war crimes have been committed by these groups (UN General Assembly, 2015).
The European Union
The European Union has been a long-term partner of Iraq, and remains a leading donor to the Iraq humanitarian response. Since the beginning of the conflict in 2014, the total humanitarian assistance reached €370 million (EEAS, 2018). In particular, following the intensification of the conflict in 2017, the European commission allocated €82.5 million towards humanitarian aid (European Commission, 2017). With the conflict coming to an end, the EU is focusing its humanitarian efforts on supporting the safe and voluntary return of IDPs and refugees (EEAS, 2018).
Additionally, the EU has deployed since October 2017 the EUAM (EU Assistance Mission). It was requested by the Iraqui authorities and “focused on assisting the Iraqi authorities in the implementation of the civilian aspects of the Iraqi Security Strategy. EU experts are providing advice and assistance in priority work areas responding to the needs of the relevant authorities” (EEAS, 2018).
Last but not least, the EU has been committed to promoting the “stabilisation and reconciliation of the country” (EEAS, 2018). To do so, it has committed more than €46 million, to support local and regional governments and over €29 million to support projects linked to reconciliation (EEAS, 2018). In January 2018, it also put forward an ‘EU Strategy for Iraq’ which will replace the EU Regional Strategy for Syria and Iraq as well as the ISIL/Da’esh threat, adopted in March 2015 (EEAS, 2018).
Key Declarations by the European Union
European External Action Service. 2018. “Iraq: “We Want To Help You Win The Peace”, Mogherini Says At Conference For Reconstruction”.
In this report from the Conference for Reconstruction of Iraq, which the EU high representative Mogherini co-chaired, the emphasis is made on the importance of the involvement on civilians in reconstructing Iraq. The EU committed to provide an additional 400 million to bring stability to the country.
European External Action Service. 2018. “Planning How To Win The Peace: Civilian Security Sector Reform In Iraq”.
The EUAM Iraq has been working closely with the Iraqi Ministry of Interior to bring peace in the country through a reform of the civilian security sector.
EEAS – European External Action Service – European Commission”. 2018″ EU-Iraq: A Partnership For A Better Future – EU Delegation Presents The New EU Strategy For Iraq At The Prime Minister’s Guest House
On February 2018, the new European strategy for Iraq has been presented at the Prime Minister’s Guest House. The new strategy “focuses on the underlying political, social and economic drivers of instability in the country and illustrates the deep commitment of the EU to continue working with the Iraqi people and government for long-term peace, reconciliation and stability in the country”.
European Commission. 2018. “EU strategy on Iraq: new proposal to strengthen support to the Iraqi people.” European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations . January 8. Accessed January 30, 2018.
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission adopted a ‘Joint communication proposing EU strategy for Iraq’ (below). The proposal addressed the main challenges Iraq faces following the territorial defeat of ISIL. The commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management, Christos Stylianides, explained the emergency assistance the EU has been long proving Iraq, through humanitarian aid and stablisation of liberated areas from ISIL.
High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. January 8 2018. Joint communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Elements for an EU strategy for Iraq. Joint Paper, Brussels: European Commission.
This proposal by the high representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European commission outlines their main strategic objectives to help Iraq. Mainly, preserving unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq, supporting and strengthening the Iraqi political system in their transition towards an accountable and democratic system of government. The EU also aims to provide humanitarian aid for recovery and stablisation. Furthermore they aim to promote sustainable inclusive economic growth through small grants to generate jobs.
European Commission. 2017. “EU steps up its assistance for the stabilisation of Iraq.” European Commission: Press Release Database. October 12. Accessed November 28, 2017.
This press statement announces the European Commission’s pledge to increase its socio-economic assessment for the stabilisation of Iraq. Proposing a further €60.4 million stabilisation package, the EC have now committed a total of €608.4 million, since the crisis began, to help with Iraq’s humanitarian, security and stabilisation challenges. €50.4 million of which is set to restore basic services, repair public infrastructure, as well as goals to reactivate the Iraq economy through small business grants. The rest of which is to go clearing land previously contaminated by explosives. Federica Mogherini, the High Representative, announced a stand with Iraqi people and authorities in the fight against ISIL.
European Union. 2017. Press and information team of the Delegation to IRAQ. 2017. “Prime Minister Dr. Haider Al-Abadi receives EU Ambassador to Iraq Ramon Blecua and EUAM Mission.” European Union. November 28. Accessed December 3, 2017.
The European Union Advisory Mission (EUAM) and EU Ambassador to Iraq, Ramon Blecua, delivered an assignment to Iraqi Prime Minister Dr. Haider Al-Abadi. They advised Al-Abadi and discussed the process of rebuilding, development and cooperation between Iraq and EU, in institution-building and preserving unity.
EU Strategic Communications. 2017. “EU launches new security mission in Iraq.” European Union. October 16. Accessed January 24, 2017.
This is a proposal by the Eu in October, launching a new civilian Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission in Iraq. The mission is set to assist Iraqi government, provide advice, help institution-building, to consolidate security, encourage peace and try to prevent future conflicts by implementing strict adherence to the rule of law and human rights standards.
EU Press and information team of the Delegation to IRAQ. 2016. “EU Commissioner Christos Stylianides announces new humanitarian aid projects in Iraq.” European Union: External Action. July 23. Accessed January 31, 2018.
This is a proposal by the European Union of aid for Iraq. The Commissioner Stylianides announced €104 million for humanitarian assistance. During Christos Stylianides’, the EU Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management, third visit to Baghdad, Iraq he proposed further aid to help those affected by the intensifying conflict. The funding aims to provide food, health care, water, protection and shelter.
European Union External Action Service Press Team . 2014. “Remarks of the High Representative and Vice President Federica Mogherini in Baghdad, Iraq .” European Union External Action. December 22. Accessed January 31, 2018.
This is a press conference by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, Federica Mogherini, and the Iraqi Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ibrahim Al-Jaafari, and the Dutch Minister for Foreign affairs, Bert Koenders. Mogherini comments on the importance of the success of Iraq for the European Union, because they share in solidarity that the fight is military and cultural, that concerns all Iraqis.
European Union. 2014. “Strengthening the efficiency and credibility of the criminal justice system and enhancing the rule of law.” European Union: External Action. May 26. Accessed January 31, 2018.
This is a project implemented by the GFA consulting group to strengthen the efficiency and credibility of the criminal justice system and enhancing the rule of law in Iraq. The 40 month project seeks to strengthen governance mechanism within the police, judicial and penitentiary institutions. It aims to support building state accountability, legitimacy and credibility, to encourage institutions to enhance public policies and services for the benefit of Iraqi people. The results of the project are predicted to improve the capacity of policy planning and coordination of justice authorities, and encourage stronger criminal investigations, and improved existing legal aid.
Key Declarations by the United Kingdom
GOV.UK. 2018. “Girls’ education to be central pillar of UK foreign, development and defence policy”. Accessed 24th January 2018.
In this statement, the UK government pledges to champion the education of girls in order to promote global stability, thereby changing the lives of women living amongst conflict. The Ministry of Defence has been training thousands of forces in Iraq in order to help combat sexual violence within conflict situations.
GOV.UK. 2017. “UK Action to Combat Daesh”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This statement from the UK government discusses how it will work towards eliminating the global threat which is posed by ISIL. The UK plays a leading role in the Global Coalition, an organisation of 71 partners who are committed to the destruction of the terrorist group through military support, stifling its economic infrastructure, stopping foreign terrorist fighters cross borders, stabilising areas liberated from terrorism and use of counter messaging. The statement also discusses the humanitarian consequences of conflict in Iraq, including the displacement of over 3 million Iraqi people. The UK has promised £169.5 million in humanitarian support to Iraq since June 2014. This includes aid such as water, medicine, shelter and economic support to the people of Iraq.
GOV.UK. 2017. “Foreign Secretary statement on Kurdish/Iraq tensions”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement from Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson on his conversation with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi as well as the Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Nechirvan Barzani. He talks of the UK’s encouragement of the Government of Iraq to talk with the Kurdistan Regional government with regards to the establishment of a unified Iraq, supporting all the people of Iraq including the Kurds. The Kurdistan Regional Government and the Government of Iraq have the UK’s full support to create strong democratic institutions and resolve their differences. The UK urges them to focus on preventing the re-emergence of ISIL and rebuilding the country.
GOV.UK. 2017. “Foreign Secretary’s statement on Kurdish Referendum”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement by Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson regarding the referendum held in the Kurdish Region of Iraq in September 2017 which voted for independence from Iraq. Johnson states that the referendum is not supported by the UK as it was not agreed with the Government of Iraq. The UK proposed that there should be discussions between the Iraqi Government and the Kurdistian Regional Government. However, this was rejected by part of the Kurdish leadership. The UK urges both sides to cooperate and focus on defeating ISIL.
GOV.UK. 2015. “Counter-ISIL Coalition Conference in Paris, 2 June 2015”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement from former Foreign Secretary, Philip Hammond after the Counter-ISIL Coalition Conference in Paris, 2015. He discusses how the UK has played a leading role in halting ISIL’ advance through the use of airstrikes as well as action on the ground. He also states that the UK will be supporting stabilisation in Iraq through donating to a new UN Development Programme as well as contributing to intelligence efforts.
GOV.UK. 2015. “FCO Minister: Reports that ISIL have murdered 70 Sunni tribesmen in Anbar, Iraq”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement from Tobias Ellwood, former Minister for the Middle East regarding the killing of 70 members of the Al bu Nimr tribe by ISIL. He discusses how the Global Coalition has “taken back 30% of territory ISIL once controlled in Iraq” through use of air strikes. However, little information is provided about how the UK will continue to prevent the recurrence of such atrocities.
GOV.UK. 2015. “Prime Minister’s statement on Paris attacks and G20 Summit”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement made by former Prime Minister, David Cameron regarding the terrorist attacks in Paris, November 2015. Cameron states that Britain will work with its allies in order to help local forces regain its territory in Iraq and destroy ISIL. It will also provide fundamental intelligence support. He pledged to invest in intelligence agencies through the addition of nearly 2000 additional security staff.
GOV.UK. 2016. “Gulf Co-operation Council – United Kingdom, first summit 6 to 7 December 2016, Kingdom of Bahrain: joint communiqué”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a report from the Gulf Co-operation Council’s summit in the Kingdom of Bahrain in December 2016. In this summit the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) and the UK emphasised its commitment to helping the Iraqi government as well as the International Global Coalition in fighting ISIL as well as stabilising the country. They encouraged the initiative of a global campaign, consisting of Iraqi, UK and Belgian governments in order to create a global campaign to fight ISIL. The GCC also encouraged Iraq to implement a number of reforms in order address the grievances of Iraqi society as well as “ensuring that all armed groups operate under the Iraq state”.
GOV.UK. 2015. “Foreign Secretary hosts counter ISIL meeting in London”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This statement comes from former Foreign Secretary, Philop Hamond at a meeting of the small group of the global coalition in London regarding defeating ISIL. He discusses how airstrikes have been successful in halting the advance of the terror group and how the UK will work towards rebuilding, re-equipping and retraining Iraqi security forces in order to allow them to push back against ISIL. Hamond also discusses how during the meeting they reviewed how support can be offered to those who have suffered the most from this humanitarian crisis, however gives little detail of what support the UK can offer.
GOV.UK. 2015. “UK helps secure UN Security Council Resolution on defeating ISIL”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement by former Foreign Secretary, Philip Hammond following the UN Security Council’s unanimous vote to adopt Resolution 2249, condemning the attacks in Paris in November 2015 and attacks in the Middle East such as those in Sousse in June. Hamond states that the United Nations will work towards defeating ISIL by cutting off its finances and preventing them from access to oil as well as taking military action.
GOV.UK. 2016. “UK to provide new help to Iraqis persecuted by Daesh”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement by the UK government about how the UK will provide help to Iraqis who have been persecuted by ISIL. The UK government has pledged £50 million in humanitarian aid to provide medicine, food as well as shelter to Iraqis who have suffered from ISIL brutality. The new support will “save lives and alleviate suffering while continuing to underline the UK’s commitment to taking its international obligations seriously”. The UK’s funding to Iraq since 2014 has helped provide psychological assistance for thousands of displaced Iraqis and supported the clearance of suspected Explosive Remnants of War- contaminated land thereby enabling 5 refugee camps to be built. Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson also announced that the UK would provide an additional £10.5m to stabilise the areas of Iraq which are liberated from ISIL control.
Department for International Development. 2017. “Iraq: Humanitarian Response Summary”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a fact sheet created by the UK government which gives an overview of the UK’s humanitarian response to the crisis in Iraq. The factsheet gives a clear outline of agencies funded by the DFID and how their activities have helped to provide humanitarian support in Iraq. For example, the Office for the coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has been given £68.6 million by the DFID in order to meet the “most urgent needs of displaced people across sectors such as health, shelter and protection including for women and girls”. It also outlines some of the key successes of the Department for International Development (DFID) in 2016 such as providing food for more than 104,000 people and providing over 280,000 with safe water and sanitation.
GOV.UK. 2015. “Helping people displaced in Iraq survive the winter”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This article by the UK government discusses how humanitarian aid from the UK is helping people in Iraq to cope with the freezing winter conditions. In November 2014, the International Organisation for Migration, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other partners provided an extra £16.5 million of assistance to tens of thousands of Iraqi families. Furthermore, UK support is being used to provide blankets and heating stoves, access to healthcare and drinking water as well as making vital improvements to the homes of thousands of displaced Iraqi families.
GOV.UK. 2017. “Statement to the Commons on the campaign against Daesh in Iraq and Syria”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement to the House of Commons by former Secretary of State for International Development, Priti Patel. She discusses how, following the recapturing of East Mosul by Iraqi forces, the UK assistance through the UKN has provided water, health and municipal services to those living in the region. Patel also outlines how the UK is giving life-saving support to vulnerable families in Iraq through providing clean water to those who are facing water shortages, providing shelter to help displaced peoples survive the winter and helping children back into education. Patel raises concerns for the civilians who are trapped in West Mosul by ISIL. She goes onto announce that at the end of March the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan for Iraq will be announced, which pledges that there will be a requirement of £930 million in humanitarian aid funding for 2017. Patel recognises however that humanitarian efforts are not enough but stresses the importance of ensuring political stability. This will require the Iraqi government to unite different communities within the country.
GOV.UK. 2017. “UK sends emergency aid to the people of Mosul”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This statement discusses how in July 2017 the UK government sent emergency life-saving aid to help the people of Mosul rebuild their homes following Mosul’s liberation from ISIL after several years of fighting. The UK pledges to provide vital survival items to the people of Mosul “including drinking water, food, tents, cooking equipment, soap and vaccinations against deadly diseases”. The UK also aims to help fund a UN led programme which helps Iraqis return to Mosul and also renovates infrastructure in the region. In this statement the UK also pledged to work with the Iraq Humanitarian Pooled Fund as well as the Danish Refugee Council.
GOV.UK. 2016. “UK scales up Iraq humanitarian support ahead of Counter-Daesh offensive in Mosul”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This statement discusses how the UK is stepping up humanitarian aid in Iraq in order to provide civilians with food, shelter and water in the run up to a major operation to re capture Mosul. Former International Development Secretary Priti Patel encouraged the international community in helping the people of Mosul. The UK assistance has helped to provide food, household items, water and sanitation assistance to hundreds of thousands of Iraqis.
GOV.UK. 2016. “UK steps up commitment to countering Daesh”. Accessed 25th November, 2017.
This is a statement from Ministry of Defence and Michael Fallon regarding the UK stepping up its commitment to countering ISIL. In August, 44 additional Royal Engineers will be deployed to Al Asad Airbase. The total number of British troops in Iraq will then increase to over 600. They will be in Iraq for around six months and will construct infrastructure which includes accommodation and support offices in the coalition camps.
Key Declarations by France
France Diplomate. 2017. “Iraq- Q&A- Excerpts from the daily press briefing (20.10.17)”. Accessed 6th December 2017
This is a statement by the French government about what it is doing to defuse tensions following clashes between Kurds and government forces in Diyala Province and parts of Kirkuk. France is in close contact with authorities in Baghdad as well as those of the Kurdish refional government. France asks that the federal government fully respects the rights of the Kurds and that the regional government of Kurdistan engages in dialogue within the Iraqi constitutional framework. France is willing to “contribute any effort to ease tensions” and find a political solution in Iraq.
France Diplomate. 2017. “Iraq- Announcement of the recapture of Hawija (5 October 2017)”. Accessed 6th December 2017
This statement follows the liberation of the city of Hawijia and expresses that France welcomes this victory. France has expressed that it will not use military means to eradicate ISIL from its last strongholds but rather supports reconstructing and implementing an inclusive government in order to prevent a resurgence of terrorism. Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, Jean-Yves le Dria signed an agreement on October 5 to supply a budgetary loan of €430 million to Iraq in order to help secure international funding programs which will support Iraq.
France Diplomate. 2017. “Mosul – France will continue to provide its full support to the government of Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi (5 July 2017)”. Accessed 6th December 2017.
This statement expresses that France will provide full support to government of Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi to help stabilize the liberated areas of Mosul. It states that, following the liberation of Mosul France will monitor how humanitarian law and international human rights law is being protected when rebuilding the city.
France Diplomate. 2017. “Iraq – UN – Adoption of Security Council resolution 2379 on the fight against impunity for crimes committed by Daesh (21.09.17)”. Accessed 6th December 2017
France welcomes resolution 2379 by the Security Council regarding the fight against impunity for crimes which ISIL commit in Iraq. France hopes to establish an investigative team who will be assisting the authorities in Iraq in order to document which crimes have been committed. France has granted Iraq a loan of €430 million in order to support Prime Minister Haidar al-Abadi’s government rebuild liberated territories.
France Diplomate. 2017. “Iraq – EU – Launch of European assistance mission EUAM Iraq (16 October 2017)”. Accessed 6th December 2017.
This statement follows the launch of a new mission (European Union Advisory Mission) which aims to help with the security sector reforms which are being implemented by the Iraqi government. France expresses its support of this initiative which aims for better coordination between the EU and its member states on the ground as well as improving the EU’s common support for Iraq with regards to security.
De Villepin, Dominique. “Talk about French foreign secretary to the UNO”. Filmed [February 2003]. YouTube video, 15.38. Posted [February 2003]
This is a statement by former French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dominique de Villepin who is addressing the UN Security Council regarding France’s position on the war in Iraq. In this speech, de Villepin expresses that France does not support going to war in Iraq.
France Diplomate. 2017. “Post-Daesh: France’s engagement”. Accessed 6th December 2017.
This is a statement by the French government about how it intends to stand by Iraq until its entire territory is liberated from ISIL control. It discusses how France’s humanitarian and stabilisation assistance totals €70 million. France has also granted the Iraqi government a budgetary loan of €430 million and contributed to the United Nations Development Programme in Iraq. The statement also details how France is making efforts to restore security, improve healthcare, education and support for displaced populations as well as helping secure national cohesion.
Key Declarations by Germany
The Federal Government. 2017. “German soldiers still part of foreign missions”. Accessed 9th December 2017.
This states that German soldiers will continue providing training support for the Iraqi armed forces as well as for those security forces of the regional government of Kurdistan-Iraq.
The Federal Government. 2017. “Escalation will weaken all sides, says Sigmar Gabriel”. Accessed 9th December 2017.
Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs, Sigmar Gabriel has called upon all parties involved in the conflict between the central government in Iraq and the Kurds to end hostilities. He emphasises the importance of the joint fight against IS.
The Federal Government. 2017. “The territorial integrity of Iraq is indispensable”. Accessed 9th December 2017.
Germany here states that it does not support a referendum about the independence of the Kurdistan region, given it would “only worsen the already volatile situation in the region”. Germany therefore believes that all sides involved should not take any action which would exacerbate tensions in the area.
The Federal Government. 2017. “The Hamburg G20 Leaders’ Statement on Countering Terrorism”. Accessed 9th December 2017.
This is a press release following the Hamburg G20 Summit in July 2017. It outlines how terrorism will be combatted through enhancing cooperation between countries. This involves facilitating quick exchanges of information between intelligence and law enforcement, calling upon border agencies to detect those who are travelling for terrorist purposes and enhancing aviation security. Furthermore, here it is outlined how terrorist finances will be cut off. This involves making the international financial system hostile to terrorist activity. In addition, this statement discusses how terrorism will be prevented through combating radicalisation on the internet.
Key statements and resolutions from the United Nations
United Nations Iraq. 2018. “UN Representative Kubiš In Basra To Assess Election Preparations, Explore Needs In Post-Dae’Sh Period And How UN Can Help“. Uniraq.Org.
Jan Kubis, the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General for Iraq was assessing the preparation of the upcoming elections in Basra the first of may. Talking about the future of Iraq, he declared ““This is a new period in the life of the country, a post-Dae’sh period and we in the United Nations should be much more active and better focused in providing assistance for the needs of the people”.
United Nations Iraq. 2018. “UN’S Kubiš On Visit To Mosul: Reconstruction Hand-In-Hand With Return Of IDPS, And Elections Provide An Opportunity For Harmony And Coexistence In Ninewa“. Uniraq.Org.
Jan Kubis, the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General for Iraq was on visit in Mosul in April 2018. He stressed the importance of the upcoming elections, emphasising that it was the opportunity for the people of Iraq to elect representatives who will rebuild trust and the country. He also emphasised the importance of the safe returns of IDPs.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2018. “UNHCR Iraq Factsheet – January 2018”, Reliefweb, 22 January 2018. Accessed 23 January 2018.
This source gives an overview of the ways in which UNHCR is providing assistance in Iraq regarding the issue of internally displaced persons and refugees. This pertains to things such as the protection and shelter of these people, as well as camp management and coordination.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2018. “Iraq Situation: UNHCR Flash Update – 18 January 2018”, Reliefweb, 18 January 2018. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This webpage and linked infographic provides a situation update on Iraq as of January 2018. It notes the different challenges in solving the issue of internally displaced peoples, e.g. redisplacement following reprisal attacks and extremist sleeper cells. However, it also notes that 2.6 million people remain displaced, a smaller figure than in earlier reports. Actions taken by UNHCR, such as financial aid and the distribution of essential items, is also noted.
United Nations Security Council. 2017. “Resolution 2390 (2017)”. United Nations, 8 December 2017. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This resolution pertains to the UN’s “oil-for-food” programme in Iraq. Specifically, that all measures relating to the programme had been fully implemented.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2017. “Iraq Situation: UNHCR Flash Update – 28 November 2017”, Reliefweb, 28 November 2017. Accessed 26 January 2018.
The webpage examines a report from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. The report emphasises that, although major military operations in Iraq have ended since the last stronghold of ISIL was recaptured, the security situation in the country is still unstable. Moreover, the lack of basic infrastructure and hazards (such as explosives) left by ISIL in many reclaimed settlements continues to exacerbate the issue of internally displaced people.
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq. 2017. “Report On The Protection Of Civilians In The Context Of The Ninewa Operations And The Retaking Of Mosul City, 17 October 2016 – 10 July 2017”, United Nations, 2 November 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
Pertaining only to incidents investigated and verified by the United Nations, this report examines violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law during the Ninewa Operations and the retaking of Mosul. This is in reference to both ISIL and the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) and affiliate groups. The categories of crimes investigated is extensive, from e.g. the forced displacement of civilians and gender-based violence, to the use of weaponised chemical agents and airstrikes. The report concludes that ISIL systematically violated international humanitarian law. The report also details a number of alleged violations and human rights abuses committed by the ISF, and demands that these allegations be investigated further. The report notes that such an investigation concerning government forces fighting ISIL in Ninewa was announced by the Iraqi government in May 2017. The report also includes recommendations for both Iraq and the international community, e.g. that Iraq should consider becoming a party to the Statute of the International Criminal Court, so as to achieve jurisdiction to prosecute crimes such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
United Nations Children’s Fund. 2017. “UNICEF Iraq Monthly Humanitarian Situation Report, October 2017”, Reliefweb, 31 October 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
This webpage summarises a linked report by UNICEF, examining key elements of the humanitarian situation in Iraq, particularly focusing on the needs of children. It also provides key figures, e.g. 3.17 million internally displaced people in Iraq as of October 2017.
United Nations Security Council. 2017. “Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to resolution 2367 (2017)”, United Nations, 19 October 2017. Accessed on 25 January 2018.
This source is a 90 day report on UNAMI, as requested by the Security Council resolution 2367. It notes that the Iraqi government have a responsibility to promote justice, accountability, and reconciliation now that ISIL has largely been defeated. However, it also notes that the protection of civilians remains a priority, as some ISIL-held areas remained and internally displaced peoples remain vulnerable.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2017. “Middle East, North Africa: Displacement Snapshot (as of 16 October 2017)”, Reliefweb, 16 October 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
This infographic provides an overview of the displacement crisis in Iraq, set within the context of the wider region. It emphasises the significant impact military operations against ISIL have had on the displacement of civilians, notably due to the destruction of infrastructure. The document estimates there to be 3,231,2101 internally displaced people in Iraq. Furthermore, it notes the overflow of refugees from neighbouring Syria into Iraq, estimated to be over 240,000. It suggests that an effort to rebuild and replace destroyed infrastructures will not only aid internally displaced people in returning home, but also aid host communities by relieving them from the added pressure on resources and services.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2017. “Middle East, North Africa: Protection of Women and Children Snapshot (as of 16 October 2017)”, Reliefweb, 16 October 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
This webpage and infographic is a further resource in understanding the displacement crises that Iraq (and the broader region) is facing. This resource specifically focuses on the plight of women and children, citing key issues such as separated children, and sexual violence.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2017. “Iraq: Humanitarian Dashboard (September 2017)”, Reliefweb, 12 October 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
This webpage gives a short overview of a linked infographic created by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. The infographic summarises and analyses key humanitarian issues in Iraq, e.g. food security, health, and protection. Of interest, it also details the amount of funding received from different countries, something which could give insight into the international community’s view of, and response to, Iraq. Understanding the most current issues in Iraq may also provide stimulus on how the responsibility to protect may be applied in the future, through rebuilding.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2017. “Iraq: Humanitarian Snapshot (as of 30 September 2017)”, Reliefweb, 30 September 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
This webpage and linked infographic details the development of the issue of displacement as a result of violence (e.g. military operations) in Iraq. The internal displacement of civilians is a significant issue, with around 3.3 million people continuing to be displaced throughout Iraq (as of 30th September 2017). It also details the amount of funding needed to respond effectively to this crisis.
United Nations Security Council. 2017. “Resolution 2379 (2017)”, United Nations, 21 September 2017. Accessed 1 December 2017.
On 21st September 2017, the United Nations Security Council authorised the creation of an independent team to investigate crimes committed by ISIL in Iraq (and – note well – not crimes committed by the Iraqi Security Forces or associated groups). Consisting of both Iraqi and international experts, and headed by a Special Advisor, this team is designed to investigate and preserve evidence relating to genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. This is to aid in bringing charges against those responsible for such atrocities, through the Iraqi justice system.
United Nations Security Council. 2017. “Resolution 2367 (2017)”, United Nations, 14 July 2017. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution again renewed the United Nations Assistance Mission to Iraq (UNAMI) for a further year, until 31 July 2018. This was on the same basis as the previous resolutions cited on this matter, 2169 (2014), 2233 (2015), and 2299 (2016).
Adama, Dieng. 2016. “Statement by Adama Dieng, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide, on the situation in and around Mosul (Iraq)”, United Nations, 1 November 2016. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This press release condemns the violations of international humanitarian and international human rights laws committed by ISIL in the military operations surrounding Mosul. The Special Advisor notes the importance of recording such atrocities so that accountability may be achieved. The Special Advisor also notes that achieving accountability must not be wrought through any retaliatory violence taken by security forces, and that allegations of such action must be addressed.
United Nations Security Council. 2016. “Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict”, United Nations, 18 August 2016. Accessed 23 January 2018.
This document begins by detailing the conclusions of the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict on the situation in Iraq. These reference both terrorist groups such as ISIL, and the mobilised forces working under the Prime Minister. Regarding the former, the document condemns the increased recruitment of children, the use of children as suicide bombers and executioners, and the use of sexual violence against children. Regarding the latter, the document condemns the continued use of children as fighters, and the ill-treatment and torture of children detained by these forces. Other issues include the targeted bombing of schools and hospitals. The document goes on to detail a number of recommendations to the Security Council. These urge for there to be a focus on the rehabilitation and reintegration of children involved in the conflict. It also advocates the continuance of UNAMI’s work in this. The document ends with a response by the Deputy Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations on the report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Iraq (S/2015/852), in which he doubts many of the report’s findings.
United Nations Security Council. 2016. “Resolution 2299 (2016)”, United Nations, 25 July 2016. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution again renewed the United Nations Assistance Mission to Iraq (UNAMI) for a further year. This was on the same basis as the previous resolutions cited on this matter, 2169 (2014) and 2233 (2015).
United Nations human Rights Council. 2016. ““They came to destroy”: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis”, United Nations, 15 June 2016. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This report details the crimes committed by ISIL and associated groups against the Yazidis across Iraq and Syria. It not only finds that war crimes and crimes against humanity have been committed, but concludes that there is an ongoing genocide being committed against the Yazidi. It places particular emphasis on the plight of women and children being held captive by ISIL. The report notes that, under the Genocide Convention, are not only obligated to not commit genocide themselves, but also prevent genocide committed by others. It also references a statement made by Adama Dieng, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide, and Jennifer Welsh, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Responsibility to Protect, on the situation in Iraq in 2014.
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2016. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons on his mission to Iraq”, United Nations, 5 April 2016. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This was a report by the Special Rapporteur, concerning the plight of internally displaced persons in Iraq. It notes the critical humanitarian and human rights challenges that must be addressed, with particular reference to vulnerable groups such as women and children. The report commends and reiterates the importance of things such as the Iraqi National Policy on Displacement, and the temporary income-generating projects of the United Nations Development Programme. The report ends by pressing the importance financially support from the international community in order to continue the work of such United Nations specialised agencies effectively.
United Nations Security Council. 2015. “Resolution 2249 (2015)”, United Nations, 20 November 2015. Accessed 6 December 2017.
Referencing the continued violations of international humanitarian law committed by ISIL and associated groups, with particular emphasis on the escalation of terror attacks across the globe (e.g. Paris, November 2015), this resolution calls on member states to reaffirm and intensify their commitment towards counter-terrorism.
United Nations Security Council. 2015. “Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Iraq”, United Nations, 9 November 2015. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This Report by the Secretary-General documents the treatment of children during the conflict in Iraq from 2011 to 2015. It details six “grave violations” committed against children: the killing and maiming of children; the recruitment and use of children; sexual violence against children; attacks on schools and hospitals; the abduction of children; and the denial of humanitarian access. The report concludes that such actions may amount to war crimes on crimes against humanity. The report details a number of recommendations, which urge the Iraqi government to ensure that these violations are tackled effectively, e.g. through releasing any children associated with government-affiliated groups, and developing age-verification procedures. The report also urges the Iraqi government to treat children involved in the conflict as victims, and replace harsh punishments with a focus on rehabilitation and reintegration. The report also supports the Iraqi government’s continued cooperation with UNICEF and UNAMI.
United Nations Security Council. 2015. “Resolution 2233 (2015)”, United Nations, 29 July 2015. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution again renewed the United Nations Assistance Mission to Iraq (UNAMI) for a further year. This was on the same basis as the previously cited resolution on this matter, 2169 (2014).
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2015. “Technical assistance provided to assist in the promotion and protection of human rights in Iraq. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights”, United Nations, 27 July 2015. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This source is the report requested in the above-mentioned Human Rights Council resolution 28/32. It documents widespread and systematic violations of international humanitarian law by ISIL, and concludes that some of these may amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. It also notes the destruction of civilian and government property, infrastructure, and heritage by ISIL. The report goes on to focus in some detail on the plight of women, children, internally displaced persons, ethnic and religious minorities, and people with disabilities. The report notes UNAMI/OHCHR’s diligence in aiding the Iraqi government in fulfilling its responsibility to protect such peoples (e.g. in establishing an Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights). The report does also note areas of concern in the government’s efforts and methods, particularly in the treatment of detained individuals and the broader judicial system, and goes on to recommend a number of actions to tackle this.
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2015. “28/32. Technical assistance and capacity-building in strengthening human rights in Iraq in the light of the abuses committed by Daesh and associated terrorist group”, United Nations, 8 April 2015. Accessed 24 January 2018.
This source is a Human Rights Council resolution condemning violations by ISIL and associated groups. It reaffirms the responsibility the Iraqi government has to promote and protect human rights within the country. Along with urging the international community to assist Iraq in doing this, the resolution also requests that United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights provide technical assistance to the Government of Iraq in doing this and provide the Human Rights Council with a report on the matter.
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2015. “Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the human rights situation in Iraq in the light of abuses committed by the so-called Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant and associated groups”, United Nations, 27 March 2015. Accessed 7 December 2017.
This report of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights results from the above-mentioned Human Rights Council resolution S-22/1, which had called for the urgent dispatch of a mission to investigate the alleged violations of international humanitarian law committed by ISIL and associated groups during the period from June 2014 to February 2015. The report details various crimes committed by ISIL, as well as other groups such as the ISF. The report strongly suggests that war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide (particularly against the Yazidi) may have been perpetrated by ISIL. The report also finds it reasonable to conclude that the ISF have committed war crimes. The report goes on to suggest that the government has failed to be duly diligent regarding its responsibility to protect people under its jurisdiction. The report endorses e.g. that Human Rights Council visit Iraq to monitor the human rights situation in the country, and urges the Security Council to remain committed to address the suggestions of the crimes mentioned above.
United Nations Security Council. 2015. “Resolution 2199 (2015)”, United Nations, 12 February 2015. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution is particularly concerned with the ways in which terrorist groups such as ISIL receive funding through oil exports, ransom payments, external donations, and the trafficking of cultural heritage. Regarding this last point, the resolution also condemns the destruction of cultural heritage. As such, it details the measures states should implement against individuals and entities associated (via trade, financial donation, etc.) with these terrorist groups. This references previous resolutions, such as resolution 2161 (2014) and paragraph 7 of resolution 1483 (2003).
United Nations Security Council. 2014. “Resolution 2178 (2014)”, United Nations, 24 September 2014. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution expands the methods of counter-terrorism by stressing the obligations member states have in addressing the threat of foreign terrorist fighters, pursuant to international law. The resolution endorses things such as member states developing strategies at a local level to stem radicalisation inside their borders, and effective border controls to stem the flow of radicalisation on a global stage. The resolution also emphasises the importance of international communication and collaboration e.g. the sharing of information regarding terrorist threats.
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2014. “S-22/1, The human rights situation in Iraq in the light of abuses committed by the so-called Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant and associated groups”, United Nations, 3 September 2014. Accessed 7 December 2017.
The resolution adopted by the UN Human Rights Council compels the Office of the High Commissioner to send a mission to Iraq to investigate alleged violations of international humanitarian law committed by ISIL and associated groups. This is in response to the increasing volume and frequency of such violations by these groups. The document also notes, with some emphasis, that all member states have the responsibility to protect all human rights and freedoms, as per international law and protocol. As such, it calls upon the international community to assist the Iraqi government in protecting vulnerable groups (especially e.g. women, children, and persecuted religious minorities such as the Yazidi).
United Nations Security Council. 2014. “Resolution 2170 (2014)”, United Nations, 15 August 2014. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution primarily concerns the recruitment of foreign fighters by groups such as ISIL and al-Nusra, and the ramifications this has for Iraq. Along with condemning this recruitment, the resolution also condemns and demands an end to other systematic violations of international humanitarian law committed by these groups. It notes that some of these may constitute crimes against humanity. The resolution emphasises that defeating terrorism relies on the collaborative efforts of both regional and international states and organisations. For example, the resolution reiterates that international law obligates Member States to protect civilian populations inside their territories. Moreover, the resolution underscores the importance of states ensuring that they do not finance or facilitate these terrorist groups in any way. The resolution also lists six individuals associated with ISIL and al-Nursa, adding them to the Al-Qaida sanctions list and imposing against them the measures stipulated in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (e.g. asset freeze, travel ban).
United Nations Security Council. 2014. “Resolution 2169 (2014)”, United Nations, 30 July 2014. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution renewed the United Nations Assistance Mission to Iraq (UNAMI) for another twelve months, until 31st July 2015. This was based on the key role of UNAMI in advising, supporting, and assisting the Iraqi people in developing a stable and democratic government, and improving reconciliation and political dialogue between different groups. The resolution encouraged member states to support UNAMI through the contribution of e.g. financial, logistical, and security resources. The resolution also requested that reports about UNAMI’s progress in fulfilling its mandate be presented to the Council every three months, instead of every four months.
Dieng, Adama, and Jennifer Walsh. 2014. “Statement by Adama Dieng, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide, and Jennifer Welsh, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Responsibility to Protect, on the situation in Iraq”, United Nations, 18 June 2014. Accessed 24 January 2018.
In responding to the reported execution of around 500 Yazidis in Iraq by ISIL, the Special Advisors reference the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. This denotes the political commitment of states to the responsibility to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. As per the responsibility to assist other states in doing this, the Special Advisors compel the international community to make a concerted effort against the atrocities being committed against the Yazidi.
United Nations Security Council. 2014. “Resolution 2161 (2014)”, United Nations, 17 June 2014. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This resolution renews the measures targeting individuals and entities associated with Al-Qaida.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2014. “Iraq – Security Incidents and IDPs Map (From 7 Jan To 7 Feb 2014)”, Refworld, 7 February 2014. Accessed 5 December 2017.
This webpage provides a map, created by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, denoting the location of internally displaced peoples as of early 2014. Particularly if used in tandem with other sources cited in this bibliography, this is helpful for understanding how the crisis of internally displaced people has developed in recent years.
To learn more
Murad, Nadia. 2017. The Last Girl: My Story of Captivity and My Fight Against Islamic State. New York: Tim Duggan Books.
This book is a memoir of Nadia Murad, Nobel Peace Prize nominee and human rights activist who experienced the effects of ISIL in Iraq first hand. As young Yazidi woman Murad managed to flee Iraq, after the people of her village, including her family, were executed by ISIL militants, and she was forced into the ISIL slave trade. It’s a personal account of the rape and brutality she experienced as an ISIL captive, and how she became a refugee. Published this year, it forces into the public eye the reality of what Yazidi people, and other ethnic groups, are experiencing in Iraq at the hands of ISIL.
Amnesty. 2014. “Absolute Impunity: Militia Rule in Iraq”. Amnesty, October 2014. Accessed on 6 December 2017.
This report from Amnesty details the crisis updates as of October 2014, particularly concerning the Shi’a militants in cooperation with the government who have been abducting and killing Sunni men. It also outlines the human rights abuses being committed by ISIL, and the ISIL bomb attacks on Shi’a areas. The report provides recommendations for the Iraqi government, emphasising the necessity to reign in the militia committing human rights abuses, and ensure countability to the perpetrators of crimes, and reparation for victims.
International Crisis Group. 2016. “Fight or Flight: The Desperate Plight of Iraq’s ‘Generation 2000’”. International Crisis Group, 8 August 2016. Accessed 6 December 2017.
This report focuses on the importance of the Iraqi youth, growing up during the Iraq war who are now politically trapped, and have to choose between joining a protest group, the militia or emigrate. It urges the government to develop a strategy to ensure a meaningful place in political society for this population, which has the potential to be either a great asset to a peaceful future, or a big threat to national and regional security.
This brief was put together by the ECR2P interns Souraya Bureau, Sophie Murphy, Fiona O’Brien, Elsa Pearson, and Kathryn Priestley under the supervision and with the assistance of Dr Eglantine Staunton.
Last updated on 10 May 2018.