The Responsibility to Protect Bibliography: Key Sources

This bibliography provides comprehensive compilation of key works on the Responsibility to Protect. The list has been compiled by Professor Adrian Gallagher, Dr Blake Lawrinson, and Gillian McKay from the European Centre for the Responsibility to Protect at the University of Leeds.

Last updated 6 April 2022

Acharya, Amitav (2013) ‘The R2P and Norm Diffusion: Towards a Framework of Norm Circulation’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 5/4: 466-479. (Brill)

Acharya, Amitav (2015) The Responsibility to Protect and a theory of norm circulation, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp.59-78.

Açıkyıldız, Çağlar (2022) Boko Haram in Nigeria: R2P and Non‐State Armed Groups, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.81-105.

Adams, Simon (2016) ‘Libya’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.768-785.

Adams, Simon (2019) ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Fate of the Rohingya’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 11/4: 435-450. (Brill)

Adams, Simon (2021) Mass Atrocities, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Human Rights: ‘If Not Now, When?’ (London: Routledge).

Adebajo, Adekeye (2013) Nigeria and South Africa: on the concept “every Africa is his brother’s keeper’, in: Serrano Monica and Weiss Thomas (eds) The International Politics of Human Rights: Rallying to the R2P Cause? (London: Routledge), pp.171-191.

Adediran, Bolarinwa (2017) ‘Implementing R2P: Towards a Regional Solution?’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 9/4: 459-487. (Brill)

Adediran, Bolarinwa (2017) ‘Implementing R2P: Towards a Regional Solution?’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 9/4: 459-487. (Brill)

Afewerky, Rahel K (2022) Darfur: R2P and Dilemmas of Implementation, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.33-53.

Ainley, Kirsten (2015) ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the International Criminal Court: Counteracting the Crisis’, International Affairs, 91/1: 37–54. (Oxford University Press)

Ainley, Kirsten (2017) ‘From Atrocity Crimes to Human Rights: Expanding the Focus of the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 9/3: 243-266. (Brill)

Aning, Kwesi (2021) Côte d’Ivoire, Journal of International Peacekeeping 24/3-4: 336-366. (Brill)

Aning, Kwesi and Atuobi, Samuel (2012) The economic community of West African States and the Responsibility to Protect, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.216-231.

Aning, Kwesi and Edu-Afful, Fiifi (2016) African agency in R2P: Interventions by African Union and ECOWAS in Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, and Libya, International Studies Review 18/1: 120–133. (Oxford Academic)

Aning, Kwesi and Okyere, Frank (2016) ’The African Union’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.355-372.

Arbour, Louise (2008) ‘The responsibility to protect as a duty of care in international law and practice’, Review of International Studies, 34/3: 445-458. (Cambridge University Press)

Arslan, Hazal (2022) Venezuela: An R2P Impasse?, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.271-288.

Autesserre, Severine (2016) ‘The responsibility to protect in congo: the failure of grassroots prevention’, International Peacekeeping, 23/1: 29-51. (Taylor & Francis)

Axworthy, Lloyd (2016) ‘Resetting the Narrative on Peace and Security: R2P in the Next Ten Years’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.968-984.

Axworthy, Lloyd and Rock, Allan (2012) Making R2P work: now and in the future, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.181-194.

Azzam, Fateh and Hindawi, Coralie P (2016) ‘The Arab Region’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.451-468.

Babbitt, Eileen F (2013) Mediation and the prevention of mass atrocities, in: Serrano Monica and Weiss Thomas (eds) The International Politics of Human Rights: Rallying to the R2P Cause? (London: Routledge), pp.29-47.

Badescu, Cristina  G (2011) Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Security and Human Rights (London: Routledge).

Badescu, Cristina G and Weiss, Thomas (2010) ‘Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral?’, International Studies Perspectives, 11/4: 354-374. (Oxford Academic)

Balkan-Şahin, Sevgi (2022) Afghanistan: An R2P Concern, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.197-220.

Bekalo, Samuel A (2022) The Potential Impacts of the Stability/Instability of the Tigray Region and the Whole of Ethiopia on the Wider East and Horn of Africa, Global Responsibility to Protect, 14/1: 33-35. (Brill)

Bellamy, Alex J (2009) Responsibility to protect: the global effort to end mass atrocities (Cambridge: Polity Press)

Bellamy, Alex J (2010) The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On, Ethics and International Affairs, 24/2: 143-169. (Cambridge University Press)

Bellamy, Alex J (2011) ‘The responsibility to protect in Southeast Asia: between non-interference and sovereignty as responsibility’, The Pacific Review, 24/2: 197-200. (Taylor & Francis)

Bellamy, Alex J (2011) Libya and the Responsibility to Protect, Ethics and International Affairs, 25/3: 263-269. (Cambridge University Press)

Bellamy, Alex J (2011) Libya and the Responsibility to Protect: The Exception and the Norm, Ethics & International Affairs, 25/3: 263-269. (Cambridge)

Bellamy, Alex J (2013) ‘Mainstreaming the Responsibility to Protect in the United Nations System: Dilemmas, Challenges and Opportunities’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 5/2: 154-191. (Brill)

Bellamy, Alex J (2013) The Responsibility to Protect: Added value or hot air? Cooperation and Conflict, 48/3: 333-357. (Sage).

Bellamy, Alex J (2014) A death foretold? Human rights, responsibility to protect and the persistent politics of power, Cooperation and Conflict, 50/2: 286-293. (Sage).

Bellamy, Alex J (2014) Responsibility to protect: a defense (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Bellamy, Alex J (2015) A chronic protection problem: The DPRK and the responsibility to protect, International Affairs, 91/2: 225-244. (Oxford Academic)

Bellamy, Alex J (2015) Operationalizing the “atrocity prevention lens”: making prevention a living reality, in Sheri P. Rosenberg., Tibi, Galis., and Alex Zucker (eds) Reconstructing Atrocity Prevention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp.61-80.

Bellamy, Alex J (2015) The responsibility to protect turns ten, Ethics and International Affairs, 29/2: 161-185. (Cambridge University Press)

Bellamy, Alex J (2016) ‘Atrocity Prevention: From Promise to Practice in the Asia Pacific’, Global Responsibility to protect, 8/2-3: 180-199. (Brill)

Bellamy, Alex J (2016) ‘UN Security Council’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.249-268.

Bellamy, Alex J (2021) The International Community and Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect, in Holá, Barbora, Brehm, Hollie N, and Weerdesteijn, Maartje (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Atrocity Crimes (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.441-459.

Bellamy, Alex J (2022) ‘Sovereignty Redefined: The Promise and Practice of R2P, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.13-32.

Bellamy, Alex J and Drummond, Catherine (2012) Southeast Asia: between non-interference and sovereignty as responsibility, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.245-256.

Bellamy, Alex J and Dunne, Tim (2016) ‘R2P in Theory and Practice’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.3-18.

Bellamy, Alex J and Šimonović, Ivan (2021) Introduction. Towards Evidence Based Atrocity Prevention, Journal of International Peacekeeping 24/3-4: 285-304. (Brill)

Bellamy, Alex J and Tacheva, Blagovesta (2019) R2P and the Emergence of Responsibilities Across Borders, in: Beardsworth, Richard., Brown, Garrot W., and Shapcott, Richard (eds) The State and Cosmopolitan Responsibilities (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.15-40.

Bellamy, Alex J and Williams, Paul D (2011) The New Politics of Protection: Cote d’Ivoire, Libya and the Responsibility to Protect, International Affairs, 87/4: 825-850. (Oxford Academic)

Bellamy, Alex J. and Davies, Sara E (2018) WPS and responsibility to protect, in Sara E. Davies and Jacqui True (eds) The Oxford handbook of women, peace, and security (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.585-597.

Bellamy, Alex J. and Luck, Edward C (2019) The responsibility to protect: from promise to practice (Cambridge: Polity).

Berdal, Mats (2015) United Nations peacekeeping and the Responsibility to Protect, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp. 223-248.

Bloomfield, Alan (2015) ‘India and the Libyan Crisis: Flirting with the Responsibility to Protect, Retreating to the Sovereignty Norm’, Contemporary Security Policy, 36/1: 27-55. (Taylor & Francis)

Bloomfield, Alan (2017) Norm Complexity and Contestation: Unpacking the R2P, in: Hehir, Aidan and Murry, Robert W. (eds.) Protecting Human Rights in the 21st Century (London: Routledge), pp.165-183.

Bohm, Alexandra and Brown, Garrett W (2021) R2P and Prevention: The International Community and Its Role in the Determinants of Mass Atrocity, Global Responsibility to Protect, 13/1: 60-95. (Brill)

Bond, Jennifer and Sherret, Laurel (2012) Securing consistency for consistent security: gender and the Responsibility to Protect, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.1661-180.

Börzel, Tanja A and Zürn, Michael (2021) Contestations of the Liberal International Order: From Liberal Multilateralism to Postnational Liberalism, International Organization, 75/2: 282-305. (Cambridge)

Boutellis, Arthur (2016) ‘The Democratic Republic of Congo’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.734-749.

Breakey, Hugh (2012) ‘Protection Norms and Human Rights: A Rights-Based Analysis of the Responsibility to Protect and the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 4/3: 309-333. (Brill)

Breau, Susan (2016) The Responsibility to Protect in International Law: An Emerging Paradigm Shift (London: Routledge).

Brockmeier, Sarah., Kurtz, Gerrit., and Junk, Julian (2014) ‘Emerging norm and rhetorical tool: Europe and a responsibility to protect’, Conflict, Development & Security, 14/4: 429-460. (Taylor & Francis)

Brown, Garrett W and Bohm, Alexandra (2015) ‘Introducing Jus Ante Bellum as a Cosmopolitan Approach to Humanitarian Intervention’, European Journal of International Relations, 22/4: 897–919. (Sage)

Brunnée, Jutta and Toope, Stephen J (2008)  Norms, Institutions and UN Reform: The Responsibility to Protect, Journal of International Law and International Relations 2: 121-137. (HeinOnline)

Bulley, Dan (2010) The politics of ethical foreign policy: A responsibility to protect whom?, European Journal of International Relations, 16/3: 441-461. (Sage)

Busser, Mark (2019) Ethics, Obligation, and the Responsibility to Protect: Contesting the Global Power Relations of Accountability (London: Routledge).

Byers, Michael (2015) International law and the Responsibility to Protect, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp. 101-124.

Capie, David (2012) ‘The Responsibility to Protect Norm in Southeast Asia: Framing, Resistance and the Localization Myth’, The Pacific Review, 25/1: 75-93. (Taylor & Francis)

Carment, David, Landry, Joe and Winchester, Sean (2016) ‘The Role of Regional Organizations: A Responsibility Gap?’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.335-354.

Cater, Charles and Malone, David M (2016) ‘The Genesis of R2P: Kofi Annan’s Intervention Dilemma’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.114-132.

Chalk, Frank., Dallaire, Romeo and Matthews, Kyle (2012) The Responsibility to React, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.36-49.

Chandler, David (2004) The responsibility to protect? Imposing the ‘Liberal Peace’, International Peacekeeping, 11/1: 59-81. (Taylor & Francis)

Chandler, David (2009) ‘Unravelling the Paradox of ‘The Responsibility to Protect’’, Irish Studies in International Affairs, 20: 27–39. (Jstor)

Chandler, David (2011) Understanding the Gap between the Promise and Reality of the Responsibility to Protect, in: Cunliffe, Philip (ed) Critical Perspectives on the Responsibility to Protect: Interrogating Theory and Practice (Abingdon: Routledge), pp.19-34.

Chandler, David (2015) ‘The R2P Is Dead, Long Live the R2P: The Successful Separation of Military Intervention from the Responsibility to Protect’, International Peacekeeping, 22/1: 1-5. (Taylor & Francis)

Chen, Zheng (2016) ‘China and the responsibility to protect’, Journal of Contemporary China, 25/101: 686-700. (Taylor & Francis)

Chen, Zheng and Yin, Hang (2020) ‘China and Russia in R2P debates at the UN Security Council’, International Affairs, 96/3: 787-805.

Chesterman, Simon (2011) “Leading from Behind”: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya, Ethics & International Affairs, 25/3, pp.279-285. (Cambridge)

Chesterman, Simon (2021) Responsibility to Protect and Humanitarian Intervention: From Apology to Utopia and Back Again, in Geib, Robin and Melzer, Nils (eds) The Oxford Handbook of the International Law of Global Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 808-820.

Coen, Alise (2015) ‘R2P, Global Governance, and the Syrian refugee crisis’, The International Journal of Human Rights, 19/8: 1044-1058. (Taylor and Francis).

Cohen, Alise (2017) ‘Capable and Culpable? The United States, RtoP, and Refugee Responsibility-Sharing’, Ethics and international affairs, 31/1: pp. 71-92. (Cambridge University Press)

Cohen, Roberta (2012) From sovereignty to R2P, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.7-21.

Cohen, Roberta (2016) ‘An R2P Framework for North Korea’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 8/4: 410-430. (Brill)

Cohen, Roberta and Deng, Francis M (2016) ‘Sovereignty as Responsibility: Building Block for R2P’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 74-93.

Coicaud, Jean-Marc (2015) International law, the Responsibility to Protect and international crises, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp.162-180.

Contarinio, Michael., Negrón-Gonzales, Melinda and Mason, Kevin T (2012) ‘The International Criminal Court and Consolidation of the Responsibility to Protect as an International Norm’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 4/3: 275-308. (Brill)

Crossley, Noele (2018) ‘Is R2P still controversial? Continuity and change in the debate on ‘humanitarian intervention’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 31/5: 415-436. (Taylor & Francis)

Crossley, Noële (2018) Evaluating the Responsibility to Protect: Mass Atrocity Prevention as a Consolidating Norm in International Society (London: Routledge).

Crossley, Noele (2020) ‘Consistency, Protection, Responsibility: Revisiting the Debate on Selective Humanitarianism’, Global Governance, 26/3: 473-499. (Brill)

Crossley, Noele (2022) Understanding Humanitarian Protection (Abingdon: Routledge).

Cunliffe, Philip (2010) ‘Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ‘responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies, 36/S1: 79-96. (Cambridge University Press)

Cunliffe, Philip (2015) From ISIS to ICISS: A critical return to the Responsibility to Protect report, Cooperation and Conflict, 51/2: 233-247. (Sage).

Cunliffe, Philip (2016) The doctrine of the ‘responsibility to protect’ as a practice of political exceptionalism, European Journal of International Relations 23/2: 466–486. (Sage)

D’Costa, Bina (2022) Tigray’s Complex Emergency, Expulsions and the Aspirations of the Responsibility to Protect, Global Responsibility to Protect, 14/1: 5-11. (Brill)

Dahl-Eriksen Tor (2021) Responsibility to Protect and Rising Asian Powers, Millennial Asia, Online First.

Davenport, John J (2016) ‘In Defense of the Responsibility to Protect: A Response to Weissman’, Criminal Justice Ethics, 35/1: 39-67. (Taylor & Francis)

Davies, Graeme A M (2016) ‘R2P from below: Does the British public view humanitarian interventions as ethical and effective?’, International Politics, 53/1: 118-137. (Springer).

Davies, Sara E (2016) ‘Addressing the Gender Gap in R2P’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.489-508.

Davies, Sara E and Hewitt, Sarah (2020) ‘R2P and WPS: Operationalizing Prevention from Alignment’, in, Hunt, Charles T and Orchard, Phil (eds) Constructing the Responsibility to Protect: Contestation and Consolidation (London: Routledge).

Davies, Sara E and Teitt, Sarah (2012) ‘Engendering the Responsibility to Protect: Women and the Prevention of Mass Atrocities’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 4/2: 198-222. (Brill)

Davies, Sara E., Teitt, Sarah and Nwokora, Zim (2014) Bridging the gap: Early warning, gender and the responsibility to protect, Cooperation and conflict, 50/2: 228-249. (Sage).

De Franco, Chiara, Meyer, Christopher and Smith, Karen E (2016) ‘Europe and the European Union’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.391-408.

De Waal, Alex (2007) ‘Darfur and the failure of the responsibility to protect’, International Affairs, 83/6: 1039-1054. (Oxford University Press)

Dembinski, Matthias and Schott, Berenike (2014) ‘Regional security arrangements as a filter for norm diffusion: the African Union, the European Union and the responsibility to protect’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27/2: 362-380. (Taylor & Francis)

Deng, Francis M (2011) ‘From ‘Sovereignty as Responsibility’ to the ‘Responsibility to Protect’’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 2/4: 353-370. (Brill)

Diamond, Nickey (2021) ‘The Failure to Protect in Myanmar: A Reflection on National Protection of Rohingya against Mass Atrocity Crimes and Prospects for the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 13/2-3: 379-386. (Brill)

Dieng, Adama (2021) Atrocity Crimes and Large-Scale Human Rights Violations, in Geib, Robin and Melzer, Nils (eds) The Oxford Handbook of the International Law of Global Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.248-361.

Docherty, Benedict., Mathieu, Xavier and Ralph, Jason (2020) ‘R2P and the Arab Spring: Norm Localisation and the US Response to the Early Syria Crisis’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 12/3: 246-270. (Brill)

Donovan, Outi (2018) Changing ideas, changing norms: The case of ‘the responsibility to rebuild’, Cooperation and Conflict, 53/3: 392-410. (Sage).

Doyle, Michael W (2011) International Ethics and the Responsibility to Protect, International Studies Review, 13/1: 72-84. (Oxford Academic)

Doyle, Michael W (2016) ‘The politics of global humanitarianism: The responsibility to protect before and after Libya’, International Politics, 53/1: 14-31. (Springer).

Dunford, Robin and Neu, Michael (2019) ‘The Responsibility to Protect in a world of already existing intervention’, European Journal of International Relations, 25/4: pp.1080–1102. (Sage)

Dunford, Robin and Neu, Michael (2019) Just war and the Responsibility to Protect: A Critique (London: Zed).

Dunne, Tim (2013) ‘Distributing Duties and Counting Costs’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 5/4: 443-465. (Brill)

Dunne, Tim (2015) The Responsibility to Protect and world order, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp. 81-100.

Dunne, Tim and Gifkins, Jess (2011) ‘Libya and the state of intervention’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 65/5: 515-529. (Taylor & Francis)

Dunne, Tim and Gelber, Katharine (2015) Argumentation and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Libya, in Mills, Kurt and Karp, David J (eds) Human Rights Protection in Global Politics: Responsibilities of States and Non-State Actors (London: Palgrave Macmillan), pp.288-308.

Dunne, Tim and Gilber, Katharine (2015) ‘Text and Context in the Responsibility to Protect: A Reply to Hehir’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 7/2: 225-233. (Brill)

Dunne, Tim and Staunton, Eglantine (2016) ‘The Genocide Convention and Cold War Humanitarian Intervention’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 38-55.

Dunne, Tim and Teitt, Sarah (2015) ‘Contested Intervention: China, India, and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Governance, 21/3: 371-391. (Brill)

Egerton, Frazer (2012) What is right with R2P?, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.77-84.

Elmi, Afyare A (2012) Evaluating the implementation of the Responsibility to Protect in East Africa, in Knight, Andy W and Egerton, Frazer (eds) The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (London: Routledge), pp.232-244.

Ercan, Pinar G (2016) Debating the future of the responsibility to protect: The evolution of a moral norm (Palgrave Macmillan)

Ercan, Pinar G (2019) ‘UN General Assembly Dialogues on the Responsibility to Protect and the Use of Force for Humanitarian Purposes’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 11/3: 313-332. (Brill)

Ercan, Pinar G (2022) Contested Legitimacy of the Responsibility to Protect in an Era of Humanitarian Crises, in: Gok, Gonca O and Mehmetcik, Hakan (eds) The Crises of Legitimacy in Global Governance (London: Routledge), pp.193-208.

Ercan, Pinar G (ed) (2022) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan).

Erskine, Toni (2016) ‘Moral Agents of Protection and Supplementary Responsibilities to Protect’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.167-185.

Eskiduman, Özgecan (2022) Gaza: R2P and Selective Implementation, in Ercan, Pinar G (ed) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On: Rhetoric and Implementation (Palgrave McMillan), pp.153-169.

Evans, Gareth (2006) From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect, Wisconsin International Law Journal, 24/3: 703-722. (HeinOnline)

Evans, Gareth (2008) The Responsibility to Protect: An Idea Whose Time Has Come … and Gone? International Relations, 22/3: 283–298. (Sage)

Evans, Gareth (2009) The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All (Brookings Institution Press)

Evans, Gareth (2015) The evolution of the Responsibility to Protect: from concept and principle to actionable norm, in Thakur, R and Maley, W (eds.) Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press), pp.16-27.

Evans, Gareth (2016) ‘R2P: The Next Ten Years’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.913-931.

Evans, Gareth and Sahnoun, Mohamed (2002) ‘The responsibility to protect’, Foreign Affairs, 81: 99-110. (Foreign Affairs)

Falk, Barbara J and Skinner, Sara M (2016) ‘The Responsibility to Protect: A Normative Shift from Words to Action?’, International Peacekeeping, 23/3: 493-505.

Farer, Tom J and Julio, Claudia F (2013) Flesh on doctrinal bones? The United States and R2P, in: Serrano Monica and Weiss Thomas (eds) The International Politics of Human Rights: Rallying to the R2P Cause? (London: Routledge), pp.208-227.

Farrall, Jeremy (2016) ‘The Use of UN Sanctions to Address Mass Atrocities’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.655-672.

Ferguson, Kate (2020) Architectures of Violence: The Command Structures of Modern Mass Atrocities (Hurst & Co Publishers).

Ferguson, Kate (2021) ‘For the Wind Is in the Palm-Trees: The 2017 Rohingya Crisis and an Emergent UK Approach to Atrocity Prevention’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 13/2-3: 244-271. (Brill)

Fiott, Daniel (2015) ‘The Use of Force and the Third Pillar’, in: Fiott, Daniel and Koops, Joachim (eds.) The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp.130-145.

Fisher, David (2015) Libya – A Last Hurrah or Model for the Future? in Whetham, David and Strawser, Bradley J (eds) Responsibilities to Protect: Perspectives in Theory and Practice (Brill), pp.15-33.

Fisher, Jonathan (2022) #HandsoffEthiopia: ‘Partiality’, Polarization and Ethiopia’s Tigray Conflict, Global Responsibility to Protect, 14/1: 28-32. (Brill)

Focarelli, Carlo (2008) The Responsibility to Protect Doctrine and Humanitarian Intervention: Too Many Ambiguities for a Working Doctrine, Conflict & Security Law, 13/2: 191-213. (Oxford Academic)

Focarelli, Carlo (2012) The Responsibility to Protect Doctrine and Humanitarian Intervention: Too Many Ambiguities for a Working Doctrine, in Gazzini, Tarcisio and Tsagourias, Nicholas (eds) The Use of Force in International Law (London: Routledge), pp.597-620.

Foot, Rosemary (2016) ‘The State, Development, and Humanitarianism: China’s Shaping of the Trajectory of R2P’, in: Bellamy, A and Dunne T (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp.932-947.

Foot, Rosemary (2020) China, the UN, and Human Protection: Beliefs, Power, Image (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Frederic, Mégret (2010) ‘ICC, R2P, and the International Community’s Evolving Interventionist Toolkit’, Finnish Yearbook of International Law, 21: 21–52. (Bloomsbury Collections)

Freire, Maria R., Lopes, Paula D., and Nascimento, Daniela (2016) ‘Responsibility to protect’ and the African Union: Assessing the AU’s capacity to respond to regional complex humanitarian and political emergencies, African Security Review, 25/3: 223-241. (Taylor & Francis)

Fruberg-Fernros, Henrik and Brommesson, Douglas (2013) The responsibility to protect – An incoherent doctrine?, International Politics, 50/4: 600-622. (Springer)

Fung, Courtney J (2016) Global South solidarity? China, regional organizations and intervention in the Libyan and Syrian civil wars, Third World Quarterly 37/1: 33–50. (Taylor & Francis)

Gallagher et al (2021) Roundtable: The Responsibility to Protect in a Changing World Order: Twenty Years since Its Inception, 35/2. (Cambridge)

Gallagher, A , Lawrinson, B and Hunt, C.T (Forthcoming) Colliding Norm Clusters: Protection of Civilians, Responsibility to Protect, and Counterterrorism in Mali. Global Responsibility to Protect.

Gallagher, Adrian (2015) ‘The promise of pillar II: analysing international assistance under the Responsibility to Protect’, International Affairs, 91/6: 1259-1275. (Oxford University Press)

Gallagher, Adrian (2015) ‘The Responsibility to Protect Ten Years on from the World Summit: A Call to Manage Expectations’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 7/3-4: 254-274. (Brill)

Gallagher, Adrian (2021) ‘To name and shame or not, and if so, how? A pragmatic analysis of naming and shaming the Chinese government over mass atrocity crimes against the Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities in Xinjiang’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 6/4: 1-16 (Oxford Academic)

Gallagher, Adrian and Brown, Garrett W (2016) ‘The Responsibility to Protect 10 years on from the World Summit: A victory for common humanity?’, International Politics, 53/1: 8-13. (Springer).

Gallagher, Adrian and Wheeler Nicholas J (2021) ‘Trust or Perish? The Responsibility to Protect and Use of Force in a Changing World Order’ Ethics & International Affairs, 35/2: 181-195. (Cambridge University Press)

Ganguly, Sumit (2016) India and the Responsibility to Protect, International Relations 30/3:362-374 (Sage)

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